Government bonds

Monetary policy and government debt management during the coronavirus pandemic

This paper describes how the large budget deficits of 2020 in the United States and the United Kingdom were financed, how central banks are in practice managed not just short-term interest rates but also yields on government bonds, and how their ability to resist a post-coronavirus surge in inflation has been compromised.

The Fed’s enhanced swap lines and new interventions in the Treasury market

In March 2020, the Federal Reserve enhanced its existing swap lines with foreign central banks, and introduced additional temporary swap lines with other central banks, in order to support the smooth functioning of U.S. dollar funding markets during the coronavirus epidemic. The Federal Reserve also announced purchases of US Treasuries and agency mortgage bonds in order to support the smooth functioning of the Treasury and mortgage-backed securities market. We analyse the motivations for and the effects of these measures.