panel estimation

Bank Leverage Ratios, Risk and Competition - An Investigation Using Individual Bank Data

Following experience in the global financial crisis (GFC), when banks with low leverage ratios were often in severe difficulty, despite high-risk-adjusted capital measures, a leverage ratio was introduced in Basel III to complement the risk-adjusted capital ratio (RAR). Empirical testing of the leverage ratio, individually and relative to regulatory capital is, however, sparse. More generally, the capital/risk/competition nexus has been neglected by regulators and researchers.

TIER 2 Capital and Bank Behaviour

The consensus among financial regulators is that Tier 2 capital is inferior to Tier 1, both in terms of incentives for an ongoing bank and regarding the protection it offers in the case of failure. Some economists, while not denying the benefits of Tier 1, suggest that there may be benefits of market discipline to subordinated debt, which is part of Tier 2. Given the regulatory community is undertaking radical changes to current regulation, it is a paradox that virtually no empirical work has looked at the actual effects of Tier 2 on bank performance.